1.Literature: If I write every thing , it will be a huge book. So I will be as brief as possible. Telugu has vast grammar rules for prose and poetry. I think the following grammar rules are not there in Hindi and English(I don’t know about other languages) If I am wrong please indicate.
Before explaining everything in detail, I will give a brief description.
Sandhulu,samasalu,alankaralu,chandhassu, satakalu,tongue twisting poems, poems with single consonant,palindrome poems, ashtavadhanam,satavadhanam,some special words make Telugu different from other languages.
Sandhulu(సంధులు): When two words combine, they form a new word, changing some syllables of original words.
Ex: Deva+Indra becomes Devendra. This is called Guna Sandhi
దేవ+ఇంద్ర=దేవేంద్ర (గుణ సంధి). There are seven types of sandhis. You can see the link below:
Samasaalu(సమాసాలు):To explain it simply, when two words having different meanings are connected by any other word and the other word is omitted, and a new word is formed it is called samasamu(సమాసము)
Ex: Raju yokka bhatudu(a soldier of a king) becomes rajabhatudu(king’s soldier). Here the word ‘yokka’ is ommitted.
రాజు యొక్క భటుడు=రాజభటుడు
For details you can see the link below
Alankaralu:(అలంకారాలు):If two words are combined, the second word describing the first, it is called ‘alankaramu’(అలంకారం)
samsaram means family
sagaram means ocean
sansarasagaram means ocean like family in the above word ‘like’ is omitted.
Sanskrit poet Kalidasu is famous for ‘Upamanalamkaram’
In our daily life we use many such alamkaras without our knowledge.
Poetry rules:There are more than 20 types of poems in Telugu all having their own rules, which are called chandhassu(చంధస్సు) . It is difficult to explain each of them.
Ex:Kandapadyam, aataveladi, teta geeti, utpalamala,champakamala, etc etc
కంద పద్యం,ఆటవెలది,తేట గీతి,ఉత్పలమాల,చంపకమాల
Satakamulu(శతకములు): They are collection of 100 poems written by one poet,usually ending with the same phrase or word, which is called ‘makutam’(మకుటం)
Ex:Sumati satakam, vemana satakam, Bhaskara Satakam, Sri kala hasti satakam etc etc(సుమతి శతకం, వేమన శతకం,భాస్కర శతకం, శ్రీ కాళహస్తీశ్వర శతకం etc etc)
Vemana Satakam ends with the phrase”Viswa daabhi rama vinura vema”
Tongue twisters in the form of poems: I think in no other language there is a poem as tongue twister.
The following poem is from Potana Mahabharatam, which is a tongue twister.This is from Gajendra moksham
అడిగెద నని కడువడి జను
నడిగిన దను మగడ నుడుగుడని నెడ నుడుగున్
వెడ వెడ చిడిముడి తడబడ
నడుగిడు నడుగిడదు జడిమ నడుగుడు నెడలన్
Adigedanani kaduvadi janu
nadigina danu maguda nudugadani nada yudugun
vedaveda sidimudi tadabada
nadugidu nadugidadu jadima nadugidunedalan
(Laksmi, to ask her husband where he is going, swiftly goes forward a few steps. Again she hesitates to go forward because her husband may feel bad,and steps back. On a second thought, her hair all getting deshelved, she walks swiftly a few steps forward with quivering legs)
Poems with only one consonant:
Palindrome poems:has contributed this.
రాధా నాధ తరళిత
సాధక రధ తా వరసుత సరస నిధానా
నాధాని సరసత సురవ
తాధరా కధ సా తళిరత ధానా ధారా
Special words in Telugu:In English and Hindi there is only one word ‘we’ which has two meanings in Telugu
When you are speaking with somebody if you say memu, you are not including that person in ‘we’
When you are speaking with somebody if you say manamu, you are including that person in ‘we’
Memu repu ooriki veltunnamu-మేము రేపు ఊరికి వెళ్తున్నాము-we are going out of station tomorrow(you are not coming with us)
Manam repu ooriki veltunnamu-మనం రేపు ఊరికి వెళ్తున్నాము-we are going out of station tomorrow(you are coming with us)
Ashtavadhanam: Please see the link below:
Satavadhanam: See link below